Cool Physics Activities for Girls (Girls Science Club)
Due to Cannon's work, most of the then-existing classes of stars were thrown out as redundant. Afterward, astronomy was left with the seven primary classes recognized today, in order: O, B, A, F, G, K, M;  that has since been extended. Henrietta Swan Leavitt first published her study of variable stars in This discovery became known as the "period-luminosity relationship" of Cepheid variables.
The accomplishments of Edwin Hubble , renowned American astronomer, were made possible by Leavitt's groundbreaking research and Leavitt's Law. Clark in their book Measuring the Cosmos. Hubble often said that Leavitt deserved the Nobel for her work. In , Harvard graduate student Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin demonstrated for the first time from existing evidence on the spectra of stars that stars were made up almost exclusively of hydrogen and helium , one of the most fundamental theories in stellar astrophysics.
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Her most famous work was on enzyme kinetics together with Leonor Michaelis , based on earlier findings of Victor Henri. This resulted in the Michaelis—Menten equations. Menten also invented the azo-dye coupling reaction for alkaline phosphatase , which is still used in histochemistry. She characterised bacterial toxins from B. She worked on the properties of hemoglobin , regulation of blood sugar level, and kidney function. World War II brought some new opportunities. The Office of Scientific Research and Development , under Vannevar Bush , began in to keep a registry of men and women trained in the sciences.
Cool Physics Activities for Girls : Suzanne Slade :
Because there was a shortage of workers, some women were able to work in jobs they might not otherwise have accessed. Many women worked on the Manhattan Project or on scientific projects for the United States military services. Women in other disciplines looked for ways to apply their expertise to the war effort.
Three nutritionists, Lydia J. Roberts , Hazel K. Stiebeling , and Helen S. Mitchell , developed the Recommended Dietary Allowance in to help military and civilian groups make plans for group feeding situations. The RDAs proved necessary, especially, once foods began to be rationed.
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Rachel Carson worked for the United States Bureau of Fisheries , writing brochures to encourage Americans to consume a wider variety of fish and seafood. She also contributed to research to assist the Navy in developing techniques and equipment for submarine detection. Women in psychology formed the National Council of Women Psychologists , which organized projects related to the war effort.
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In the social sciences, several women contributed to the Japanese Evacuation and Resettlement Study , based at the University of California. This study was led by sociologist Dorothy Swaine Thomas , who directed the project and synthesized information from her informants, mostly graduate students in anthropology. In the United States Navy , female scientists conducted a wide range of research.
Mary Sears , a planktonologist , researched military oceanographic techniques as head of the Hydgrographic Office's Oceanographic Unit. Florence van Straten , a chemist, worked as an aerological engineer. She studied the effects of weather on military combat. Grace Hopper , a mathematician, became one of the first computer programmers for the Mark I computer. Gerty Cori was a biochemist who discovered the mechanism by which glycogen, a derivative of glucose, is transformed in the muscles to form lactic acid, and is later reformed as a way to store energy. For this discovery she and her colleagues were awarded the Nobel prize in , making her the third woman and the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science.
She was the first woman ever to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Cori is among several scientists whose works are commemorated by a U. Nina Byers notes that before , fundamental contributions of women to physics were rarely acknowledged. Women worked unpaid or in positions lacking the status they deserved. That imbalance is gradually being redressed.
In the early s, Margaret Rossiter presented two concepts for understanding the statistics behind women in science as well as the disadvantages women continued to suffer. She coined the terms "hierarchical segregation" and "territorial segregation. The latter describes the phenomenon in which women "cluster in scientific disciplines.
A recent book titled Athena Unbound provides a life-course analysis based on interviews and surveys of women in science from early childhood interest, through university, graduate school and the academic workplace. The thesis of this book is that "Women face a special series of gender related barriers to entry and success in scientific careers that persist, despite recent advances". By , these awards had recognised almost laureates from 30 countries. Fifteen promising young researchers also receive an International Rising Talent fellowship each year within this programme.
South-African born physicist and radiobiologist Tikvah Alper —95 , working in the UK, developed many fundamental insights into biological mechanisms, including the negative discovery that the infective agent in scrapie could not be a virus or other eukaryotic structure. In July , Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered evidence for the first known radio pulsar , which resulted in the Nobel Prize in Physics for her supervisor.
She was president of the Institute of Physics from October until October Astrophysicist Margaret Burbidge was a member of the B 2 FH group responsible for originating the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis, which explains how elements are formed in stars. She has held a number of prestigious posts, including the directorship of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Mary Cartwright was a mathematician and student of G. Her work on nonlinear differential equations was influential in the field of dynamical systems.
Rosalind Franklin was a crystallographer, whose work helped to elucidate the fine structures of coal, graphite , DNA and viruses.
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Jane Goodall is a British primatologist considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees and is best known for her over year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees. Dorothy Hodgkin analyzed the molecular structure of complex chemicals by studying diffraction patterns caused by passing X-rays through crystals. She won the Nobel prize for chemistry for discovering the structure of vitamin B 12 , becoming the third woman to win the prize for chemistry. This made the Curies the family with the most Nobel laureates to date.
Palaeoanthropologist Mary Leakey discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island and also a noted robust Australopithecine. She was appointed a Senator for Life in the Italian Senate in and is the oldest Nobel laureate ever to have lived.
Zoologist Anne McLaren conducted studied in genetics which led to advances in in vitro fertilization. She became the first female officer of the Royal Society in years. Bertha Swirles was a theoretical physicist who made a number of contributions to early quantum theory. Bessa Vugo was a physiologist and collaborator of Jacques Monod , whose work helped to understand the structure of taste buds , and some psychological aspects of taste.
Buck is a neurobiologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Richard Axel for their work on olfactory receptors. Biologist and activist Rachel Carson published Silent Spring , a work on the dangers of pesticides, in Eugenie Clark , popularly known as The Shark Lady, was an American ichthyologist known for her research on poisonous fish of the tropical seas and on the behavior of sharks.
Ann Druyan is an American writer, lecturer and producer specializing in cosmology and popular science. Druyan has credited her knowledge of science to the 20 years she spent studying with her late husband, Carl Sagan , rather than formal academic training. Druyan also sponsored the Cosmos 1 spacecraft. Gertrude B. Elion was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for her work on the differences in biochemistry between normal human cells and pathogens.
Sandra Moore Faber , with Robert Jackson , discovered the Faber—Jackson relation between luminosity and stellar dispersion velocity in elliptical galaxies. She also headed the team which discovered the Great Attractor , a large concentration of mass which is pulling a number of nearby galaxies in its direction.
Zoologist Dian Fossey worked with gorillas in Africa from until her murder in Astronomer Andrea Ghez received a MacArthur "genius grant" in for her work in surmounting the limitations of earthbound telescopes. Maria Goeppert-Mayer was the second female Nobel Prize winner in Physics, for proposing the nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus.
Earlier in her career, she had worked in unofficial or volunteer positions at the university where her husband was a professor. Goeppert-Mayer is one of several scientists whose works are commemorated by a U. Sulamith Low Goldhaber and her husband Gerson Goldhaber formed a research team on the K meson and other high-energy particles in the s. Szostak, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.
Deborah S. Stephanie Kwolek , a researcher at DuPont, invented poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide — better known as Kevlar. Lynn Margulis is a biologist best known for her work on endosymbiotic theory , which is now generally accepted for how certain organelles were formed. Barbara McClintock 's studies of maize genetics demonstrated genetic transposition in the s and s. She dedicated her life to her research, and she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in McClintock is one of several scientists whose works are commemorated by a U.
First woman ever to be the Chief of this prestigious department. Carolyn Porco is a planetary scientist best known for her work on the Voyager program and the Cassini—Huygens mission to Saturn. She is also known for her popularization of science, in particular space exploration. One consequence is a particle known as the axion , a candidate for the dark matter that pervades the universe.
Lisa Randall is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, best known for her work on the Randall—Sundrum model. She was the first tenured female physics professor at Princeton University. Sally Ride was an astrophysicist and the first American woman, and then-youngest American, to travel to outer space.